Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Same-sex intimate behavior

Every 2-minute interval that were coded as containing a minumum of one variety of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual intercourse implied, sexual activity depicted, along with other intimate behavior 2 has also been examined for the existence of same-sex intimate behavior. Because of this product, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted when you look at the interval happened between two different people associated with sex that is same.

Explore nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each 2-minute period that was indeed coded as containing one or more example of talk through the sexual talk groups found in the key coding task ( e.g., feedback about own/others’ intimate actions or passions, explore sexual activity that includes currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) had been additionally coded for whether some of the intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals. With this product, programmers once once again utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the talk that is sexual the intimate passions or issues of nonheterosexual people. Most frequently, such commentary pertaining to gays and lesbians, although periodically these were related to bisexuals.

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Intimate feedback involving homosexual and lesbian recommendations can have purposes apart from portraying the intimate issues of those teams such as for instance usage by right figures to reaffirm their heterosexuality or to tease another individual. Hence, requirements had been founded to ensure this product had been coded “yes” for an period only if mention intercourse involving nonheterosexual references really addressed sexual problems of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals; otherwise, the responses had been coded inside their appropriate intimate talk category but did not count toward a yes reaction because of this product. For instance, if a character that is male to protect his present dating dry spell and not enough sex-life by asserting, “Well, it isn’t like i am homosexual; i recently have not met just the right girl!” such a comment might have been coded in the primary coding task within the intimate talk category “own/others’ intimate passions or actions” because he produced mention of their intimate desire for ladies, nevertheless the mention of the perhaps maybe perhaps not being homosexual will never have counted toward an optimistic a reaction to the product on speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems.

System Coding

Coder training

For the year that is first content analysis, 16 pupils (10 females, 6 men) from neighborhood universities served as programmers; within the 2nd 12 months, 13 programmers (8 females, 5 men) have been either present university students or current graduates carried out this content coding. Six regarding the programmers labored on both content analyses. The stages of coder training included orientation into the coding task and codebook, big team coding of shows maybe maybe not within the test with supervisors, and lastly specific coding of training shows where programmers evaluated shows separately after which talked about the outcomes period by period in regular conferences. Initial dependability analyses had been carried out on information gathered through the specific training stage of training to find out whenever programmers could continue using the coding task that is actual. The dependability analyses presented below, nevertheless, relate solely to assessments of coder contract acquired through the coding of the subset of shows within the system examples.

Coding procedures

Coders watched sequential 2-minute periods of system some time coded the existence or lack of intimate behavior and discuss sex linked to nonheterosexuals. Because the coding ended up being restricted to system content and excluded commercials along with other promotions, programmers utilized kitchen area timers as well as the counters regarding the videocassette recorders to trace 2-minute intervals of system time. Programmers recorded information on scannable types for every single period while they viewed it. Although programmers had been permitted to carry information forward (i.e., use information presented in previous periods to comprehend the information in subsequent people), they certainly were perhaps perhaps not permitted to rule backwards (i.e., use information learned later in program to return and alter the coding in a youthful period). All opening credits and the ones shutting credits associated with content through the episode that is currenti.e., one last scene) had been coded.

Interrater Reliability Analyses

Around 11 to 12percent of this programs when you look at the system examples (letter = 157 and n = 154 when it comes to very very first and content that is second, correspondingly) were arbitrarily assigned to two programmers for separate coding and dependability evaluation. The coders then met to resolve any discrepancies in the two sets of ratings and produce a final set of ratings for the show that was used in data analyses of the entire program sample after both coders’ data had been recorded and analyzed for reliability purposes. Assessment of dependability had been carried out for a basis that is ongoing the 4 to 5 months it took programmers to perform the whole system test every year. Programs out of every genre and each system kind had been within the dependability analyses. Genres were represented when you look at the double-coded examples in approximate percentage with their representation into the program that is overall.

The number of 2-minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing led to converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) during the level that is 2-minute-interval regularity counts during the system degree (wide range of periods for which same-sex sexual behavior took place the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation of this proportion of variance when you look at the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period data for instance the regularity matters utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized whilst the criterion for appropriate reliability. Both products utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for same-sex intimate behavior ended up being .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas had been .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

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